Vocabulary building about speechesI started attending a MOOC called Introduction to Public Speaking. Mostly because I canceled my English Classes at Wizard during book 8 with is focused on speaking. Until the middle of the book (the part I've done) is more conceptual about how to build the structure per sei. The second half is more about practice, that is the part that will fault to me. That is the gap I want to overcome by myself.
During the first class, I started to realize the huge linguistic level difference between what we are used to learn as ESL (English as a Second Language) and the level used in a academic field, like this. Bellow is some expressions or new ways to say things that I have had to think first before understand out teacher. Maybe you will have gaps likely as my owns.
So, let's get started!
Completely new words
Eulogies = According to wikipedia, a eulogy is a kind of discourse that a close person usually give at a funeral. It also is a discourse in honor to a live person, but this is a less usual meaning.
Impromptu speech = Is a short speech, 3 to 5 minutes where speaker is most commonly provided with their topic in the form of a quotation, but the topic may also be presented as an object, proverb, one-word abstract, or one of the many alternative possibilities.While specific rules and norms vary with the organization and level of competition, the speeches tend to follow basic speech format (details here).
Words and expressions that maybe I've already saw, but never cared about, or used in a different way
And then we'll take that and we'll move it on into the persuasive speech. We're using a lot of those informative skills, but persuasive speech is more complex, doing different things. And in educational theory, we might call this scaffolding. We're building up to a point and then you're performing something, we build up to the next point.
Scaffolding = An usual meaning is a temporary structure on the outside of a building, made of wooden planks and metal poles, used by workmen while building, repairing, or cleaning the building.
At the broadest level, this course will focus on...
Broadest = Here means in general terms. In a high level point of view.
I'd like to take a little bit of time and talk about rhetoric.
Rhetoric = The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.
And I'm not talking about stealing or plagiarizing here. So it's not like taking a line and claiming it as your own.
Plagiarizing = Well, if you came form a Latin-romantic-languages background as me, nothing especial here, just now I know that this word also exists in a similar way in English.
And studying them and cracking open what they're doing in their speech.
To crack open = Explore what is inside, deal with the details, looking in details. Like crack an egg in order to look from inside.
So that you could borrow some of it or you can adapt what they're doing to your speech repertoire.
Repertoire = Also repertory (singular) and repertories in plural. Here the different I noticed was the singular form with I expected with "y" at the end, but seems that the both variants are accepted.
The basic steps in putting together a presentation, the canons of rhetoric.
Canons = A general law, rule, principle, or criterion by which something is judge. Collection or list of sacred books accepted as genuine. A member of the clergy who is on the staff of a cathedral, especially one who is a member of the chapter. Origin from old French.
Throughout history, thinkers and charlatans alike have devoted a considerable amount of effort to figuring out...
Alike = in the same or a similar way, similar to each other: the brothers were very much alike or the houses all looked alike.
John Locke however held a dimmer view of the art and wrote that rhetoric is ...
Dimmer = A device for varying the brightness of an electric light. Make or become less bright or distinct.
There are a number of different strategies that we will study to help prime the mental pump.
Prime = of first importance, of the best possible quality; excellent. And as a verb make (something) ready for use or action, in particular.
Mental pump = here it means again to master the abilities, as pump means to raise or cause to flow by means of a pump, to inflate.
Rhetorical communication is explicitly pragmatic.
Pragmatic = Dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations.
I can argue that it rained last night by pointing to the puddles on the ground.
Puddles = a small pool of liquid, especially of rainwater on the ground. More here.
They can try to figure out where to invest based on historical precedent, prevailing wisdom, and informal logic.
Prevailing = existing at a particular time; current. Prove more powerful or superior.
Now an appeal to pathos doesn’t mean that we simply tug at people’s heart strings or we try to scare them into acting our way.
Pathos = a quality that evokes pity or sadness: the actor injects his customary humour and pathos into the role.
Aristotle suggested that of the three artistic proofs, ethos was potentially the most persuasive...
Ethos = the characteristic spirit of a culture, era, or community as manifested in its attitudes and aspirations: a challenge to the ethos of the 1960s.
A good speech also includes a mix of logos, pathos, and ethos.
Logos = Refer to logic and reason approach.
This definitions of logos, pathos and ethos can go on an on. I suggest you to follow this link if still unclear.
This will only exacerbate any fear you have of public speaking.
Exacerbate = Make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.
Of course, if you have the invention, arrangement, style, and memory parts down pat, the delivery part shouldn’t give you too many headaches.
down pat = to learn something so well that you do not have to think about how to do or say it. Also, "I know it like the back of my hand" and "I know Romeo and Juliet by heart". Reference here.
We're working on helping him craft his letters.
Craft = an activity involving skill in making things by hand.
Writing is a human invention. There was a time before writing. There might well be a time after writing. Some would argue online education is hastening that.
Hastening = verb, be quick to do something.
So kudos to us for bringing about oblivion.
Kudos = Kudos comes from Greek and means ‘praise’. Despite appearances, it is not a plural form. This means that there is no singular form kudo and that the use of kudos as a plural, as in the following sentence, is incorrect: he received many kudos for his work (correct use is he received much kudos for his work).
Oblivion = the state of being unaware or unconscious of what is happening around.
Well, as speakers, we want to work in the realm of spoken language.
Realm = A field or domain of activity or interest.
Is a speaker more compelling than another one?
Compelling = evoking interest, attention, or admiration in a powerfully irresistible way. Not able to be refuted; inspiring conviction.
I don't compare the two of you, that would be invidious but you are truly wonderful.
Invidious = (of an action or situation) likely to arouse or incur resentment or anger in others. Unfairly discriminating; unjust.
I have not found the debates terribly edifying.
Edifying = providing moral or intellectual instruction.
This new words, most based on Latin, Greek or old German words made me think why did they occur more frequently in an formal, high standards level. It`s because English was the language of the folk, not from the aristocracy, who spoke other languages, the English always came from the boundaries, never from the academic field.
Take a look in this great material above. My point will be clear.
As you may know, I`m a programmer, I work most in web projects, but not only. This area is a mess! Each day you have to recycle what you know in many ways. The thing is, a knowledge that change so often can`t afford wait to be translated to Portuguese for instance, at that time, the known will be already deprecated. English to me is a functional requirement. I can`t imagine my daily life without it. I have been studding English for serious since 2009. In this section you can see what I`m working on. Have fun as I do.